# What are last and most fundamental factors which can help in the effective and best separation in the methodology of chromatography?

*What are last and most fundamental factors which can help in the effective and best separation in the methodology of chromatography?*There are following three basic concepts which can help in the separative methodology of process of chromatography

*Peak shape*

*Selectivity***y**

*Efficienc*

*If coefficient of distribution does not depend upon the concentration than a graph can be plotted between*Amount of different particles present along the stationary phase

Concentration of different components which exists within the mobile phase

*What kind of name should be given to the graph plotted in the basis if above discussion is taken under observation?*The type of graph is known as

*isotherm.*

*Symbols of nonlinear shaped graph*Non linear shaped graph are common,and specially have

**shape.**

*convex type*

*General discussed type of graph in all kinds of chromatography*Commonly linear “

**of graph are used in experimental which may be possible in the procedure of chromatography.**

*convex type”*

*Which type of graph are used in partition chromatography?***graph are used in partition chromatography.**

*“Concave isotherms”*

*How concave shaped graph can be produced?*When a

**than following changes takes place**

*large amount of the sample is packed within the chromatographic column*Retention time of the solute will be

*increased*At the end concave shaped isotherm graph is produced

*How convex shaped isotherm graphs are produced?*

*If sample is used in small amount than column also have small amount of sample.As a result of this procedure Concave shaped graph formation can take place.*

*Selectivity***Definition**

Selectivity can be defined as following

*“The factor which describes degree of measure of the stationary phase shows for one solute over another”.*

*Units of selectivity*Selectivity is a ratio so it has

**no units.**

*Formula of selectivity*An ideal relationship for the factor of selectivity is given as following

**a=k**

_{1/}**K**

_{2}**Description of formula:**

**k**

_{1}**= Distribution co efficient s for solute of kind one**

**K**

_{2}**= Distribution co efficient s for solute of kind two**

*Efficiency*

*Definition*

*“Efficiency in chromatography is a quantitative factor which can be described by that how many numbers of theoretical plates are present.”*

*How number of theoretical plates are represented?*Representation of number of theoretical plates is done by n alphabetical word N or height which is equivalent to the theoretical plate

*H or (HETP).*

*Relationship between H and N*H=L/N

**L= length of the column.**

*Definition of theoretical plate*

*“Length of the column in which the amount of solute which under goes in one complete equilibrium.”*
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